Devils Kitchen Lake, Illinois, USA

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USA - Midwest - Illinois - Southern -

Also known as:  Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge

Devils Kitchen Lake is one of three lakes (the other two are Crab Orchard Lake and Little Grassy Lake) that are part of the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Williamson County of Illinois. The refuge is maintained by the Department of the Interior’s Fish and Wildlife Service. Devils Kitchen Lake has an 810-acre surface area and was formed by the impounding of southern Illinois’ Grassy Creek. It is about 4 miles long and 0.25 miles wide.

The area which Devils Kitchen Lake now lies was once a valley where early pioneers often camped, taking pause from their journeys in order to rejuvenate. Vegetation from the valley was not removed before being flooded, so there are still standing trees in the lake. Therefore, swimming is prohibited due to standing timber, with fines imposed for violators. Three boat ramps and a campground are available. Outboard motors are limited to 10 horsepower, and the southeast end of the lake is reserved for electric motors and paddlers. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service maintains a recreational user fee. Patrons can obtain a one-day, 5-day or yearly pass at the Visitor’s Center located on Route 148 South.

Before the days of the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, the lands surrounding Devils Kitchen Lake consisted of farms. But as a result of excessive use, the land’s resources were exhausted and 32,000 acres of it were handed over to the Resettlement Administration in 1936 for a new plan. The Crab Orchard Creek Project, as the administration’s plan was called, outlined the construction of three lakes for recreation and industrial water supply. The project was transferred to the War Department during World War II and then again to the Department of the Interior’s Fish and Wildlife Service, delaying Devils Kitchen Lake’s completion until 1959.

The lake’s intriguing name has two origins. One refers to a large, black rock ledge that overlooked the valley where travelers set up their camp fires and cooked their meals. Black, having a particularly dark connotation at the time, helped give rise to “Devil’s Kitchen.” Eleanor Roosevelt is credited with the other name origin. During World War II, when work on the Crab Orchard Creek Project was stopped, homeless people inhabited the facilities. When work was resumed after the war, Franklin and Eleanor visited the area to view the project’s progress. When Eleanor walked into the messy cook house, she is reported to have said “This truly is the Devil’s kitchen.”

Devils Kitchen Lake is one of few lakes in Illinois where rainbow trout still abound. These freshwater fish like the cool, deep water of the reservoir that measures up to a maximum depth of 90 feet. Anglers can also find crappie, bluegill, bass and redear fish. Due to the 10 horsepower limit, the lake is quiet and calm, providing opportunities to glimpse deer or wild turkey near the water’s edge. Other wildlife that make Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge their home include American bald eagles, river otters, water birds such as American coots, turtles, bobcats, raccoons, opossums, beavers, quail, and cottontail rabbits.

Visitors should also take advantage of the many other attractions that Williamson County has to offer. After a long, relaxing trip on Devils Kitchen Lake, explore other parts of the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge. Visit one or two of the ten award-winning wineries and vineyards or gallivant the time away in one of the neighboring towns. A historical museum, golf courses, art and cultural activities, exquisite dining experiences, and antique shopping are just few of the possibilities awaiting you in Williamson County. Comfortable accommodations are available. The county has a varied selection of inn, motel, suite and cabin lodgings.

Things to do at Devils Kitchen Lake

  • Fishing
  • Boating
  • Golf
  • Camping
  • Campground
  • Cabin Rentals
  • Wildlife Viewing
  • Birding
  • National Wildlife Refuge
  • Museum
  • Antiquing
  • Shopping

Fish species found at Devils Kitchen Lake

  • Bass
  • Bluegill
  • Crappie
  • Rainbow Trout
  • Redear Sunfish (Shellcracker)
  • Sunfish
  • Trout

Devils Kitchen Lake Photo Gallery

Devils Kitchen Lake Statistics & Helpful Links

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Lake Type: Artificial Reservoir, Dammed

Water Level Control: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

Surface Area: 810 acres

Normal Elevation (Full Pond): 499 feet

Maximum Depth: 90 feet

Water Volume: 24,500 acre-feet

Completion Year: 1959

Drainage Area: 50 sq. miles

Trophic State: Mesotrophic

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Trophic State | LakeLubbers

Trophic State measures the level of algae and nutrients in a lake.

An oligotrophic lake is very clear (blue in color) and does not support much plant or fish life. A hyper-oligotrophic lake is the clearest of all lakes, and is nearly devoid of plants and fish.

A mesotrophic lake is slightly green and supports a moderate degree of plant and fish life. A lake's most desired trophic state is generally this mid-point - the mesotrophic state.

A eutrophic lake is somewhat murky and supports a large amount of plant and fish life. A hypereutrophic lake is clouded with algae, plant life, and fish life. A eutrophic or hyper-eutrophic lake can be difficult to navigate by boat - and is often an unpleasant place to swim.

The use of phosphorus-rich and nitrogen-rich fertilizer on lawns and golf courses surrounding a lake can cause it to become eutrophic or hypereutrophic.


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Catchment or Drainage Area | LakeLubbers

This is the surrounding area that drains into a lake, including land, rivers and their tributaries. This is also known as the lake's "catchment basin".

Small lakes at the highest peaks of mountains have small drainage areas. The world's oceans have the largest drainage areas.


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Lake-Area Population | LakeLubbers

This is the estimated number of people who live in a house with a view of a lake, plus those who self-describe the lake as their home, for example: "I live at Smith Mountain Lake."


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Water Residence Time | LakeLubbers

This is the estimated time that it takes for an amount of water equal to the entire volume of a lake to flow out of - or evaporate from - the lake.

Residence Time can be as short as a few days for fast-flowing small lakes, and can exceed 100 years for slow-flowing large lakes.


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Completion Year | LakeLubbers

This is the year that a reservoir was first filled to the reservoir's normal elevation - or the year that a natural lake was first dammed. A large reservoir can take more than a year to fill after its dam is first closed.

The Grand Anicut in southern India is generally considered the world's oldest dam that still operates. Grand Anicut was constructed in the second century BC. It now impounds an irrigation network that includes roughly one million acres.

You can find many of the the world's newest reservoirs on LakeLubbers. Many of the world's oldest reservoirs appear on the last page of that list.


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Water Volume | LakeLubbers

This is the estimated volume of water that a lake contains -- measured at the lake's normal elevation. By this measure, the world's largest freshwater lake is Siberia's Lake Baikal.

You can find many of the the world's largest lakes (by water volume) on LakeLubbers.

Water Volume can be measured in acre-feet, in cubic miles, or in cubic kilometers. One acre-foot is the amount of water needed to cover one acre (43,560 square feet) to a depth of one foot. One cubic mile equals 3,379,200 acre-feet. One cubic kilometer equals 810,713 acre-feet.

1 acre-foot is equal to 325,851 US gallons. Siberia's Lake Baikal contains about 6,276,367,740,000,000 gallons of freshwater - nearly 1 million gallons for every living person on earth.

The other - and more widely used - measure of a lake's size is the lake's surface acreage. By that measure, the world's largest freshwater lake is North America's Lake Superior.


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Maximum Depth | LakeLubbers

This is the estimated greatest depth of the water in a lake -- measured at the lake's normal elevation. The world's deepest lake is Siberia's Lake Baikal; that lake's maximum depth is estimated at 5,314 feet.

You can find many of the the world's deepest lakes on LakeLubbers. If you select the last page of that list, you will find the (maximum depth of) the shallowest lakes in our database.


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Average Depth | LakeLubbers

This is the estimated average depth of the water in a lake -- measured at the lake's normal elevation. If the water volume and surface area of a lake are known, an estimate of the lake's average depth can be calculated:

Water volume ÷ Surface Area = Average Depth

Example: 1,000,000 acre-feet ÷ 20,000 acres = 50 feet average depth


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Maximum Elevation | LakeLubbers

This is a lake's highest water level, measured by the lake's surface distance above sea level, that can occur during flooding. A lake's highest possible maximum elevation is usually the top of the lake's dam or spillway.

At lakes that include residential development, government regulations usually forbid the construction of homes below a lake's maximum elevation.


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Minimum Elevation | LakeLubbers

This is a lake's lowest water level, measured by the lake's surface distance above sea level, that can be reasonably expected to occur. Low lake levels can occur due to deliberate seasonal draw downs for irrigation or impending snow melt, reduced water inflows, drought and evaporation, residential or commercial water demands, and hydropower generation.

Some lakes' minimum and maximum elevations are virtually the same. Lakes that generate hydropower may vary by several feet - according to power demand. Lakes whose primary purpose is to prevent flooding can seasonally vary by 100 feet or more.

When some lakes reach their minimum elevation, their boat ramps may not be long enough to permit boat access - and boats docked on shallow parts of the lake may end up on dry ground. In those cases, kayakers and shore-based anglers may be among the few happy recreational users of the lake.


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Normal Elevation | LakeLubbers

This is a lake's normal water level, measured by the lake's surface distance above sea level. For a reservoir, this water level is also known as "full pond" or "full pool".

You can find many of the world's highest-elevated lakes on LakeLubbers. Lakes with the lowest elevations (known by LakeLubbers) are shown on the final page of that list.


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Shoreline Length | LakeLubbers

This is the length of the exterior shoreline around a lake - measured at the lake's normal elevation. The shoreline length can be considerably shorter or longer when lake water levels are lower or higher than normal.

A lake with many coves has a much longer shoreline than a lake of similar surface area that is nearly circular in shape.

When known, the shoreline miles that we report in our statistics include only the lake's exterior shoreline, and exclude the shorelines of islands located within a lake's boundaries. In lakes with many islands, those islands' combined shorelines may exceed a lake's exterior shoreline.

You can find many of the world's longest-shoreline lakes on Lakelubbers.


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Surface Area | LakeLubbers

This is the area (acreage, square kilometers, etc.) of the top surface area of a lake - measured at a lake's normal elevation. The surface area can be considerably smaller or larger when lake levels are lower or higher than normal. North America's Lake Superior is the world's largest freshwater lake by this measure.

The other measure of a lake's size is the lake's water volume. By that measure, the world's largest freshwater lake is Lake Baikal in Siberia.

You can find many of the world's largest lakes (acres) on Lakelubbers. There is no widely-accepted minimum surface area that defines a lake. What Lakelubbers describes as a lake, you might call a pond. The smallest lake that Lakelubbers currently includes is Hawaii's 2-acre Lake Waiau.


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Water Level Control | LakeLubbers

This is the organization that controls water releases or outflows from the lake or reservoir. In the USA, this is often the US Army Corps of Engineers, a power company, a municipal water system, an irrigation district, or a paper manufacturing company. In the case of private or gated lakes, a homeowners' association may be the lake's controlling authority.

Many lakes cross borders, including North America's Great Lakes. The control of such lakes and their coveted freshwater may be amicably shared - or hotly disputed.

"Water wars" continue at many lakes as growing populations and crop irrigation needs compete for the freshwater that lakes contain.


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Lake Type | LakeLubbers

There are 3 basic types of lakes that are currently included on LakeLubbers. 2 types may be dammed or not dammed, producing 5 classifications.

- A Reservoir is a man-made freshwater lake that is usually created by damming rivers.

- A Natural Freshwater Lake occurs naturally - often by glacial activity - and has a salinity of less than 30 parts per thousand. It may be dammed to produce electricity or for other reasons.

- A Natural Saltwater Lake occurs naturally and has a salinity of more than 30 parts per thousand (ppt). It may be dammed.

"Brackish" water may be categorized as freshwater or saltwater, depending on its salt content (salinity). Oligohaline water has less than 15 ppt of salt. Mesohaline water has 15-29 ppt. Polyhaline has 30-335 ppt.


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